Making Process Portfolio: Day 7

Project 55: Electronic Candle

This project involves two extra components which are not in use in the other projects

These components are the Quad Op Amp, and the Cds Cell

Below I’ve provided the role of each component, and how they function.

Components

Quad Op Amp- An integrated circuit which is an electronic circuit formed on a small piece of semiconducting material which performs the same function as a larger circuit made from discrete components.

Cds Cell- A Cadmium Sulfide Cell which can be used as an automatic control. It is a semiconductor which means it conducts electricity, but also partially resists electricity. The cells resistance changes with the amount of light shined on it.

Project 55: Electronic Candle

Now that I have information on the other components used in this project, I can move on to connecting the circuit.

The components are connected as described below.

1-26-87-97, 3-29-14-45, 13-105, 17-106, 18-36, 19-40-107, 69-27-88, 28-90-98, 70-89-42-43.

FullSizeRender.jpg
Project 55: Electronic Candle

The connection from 1 to 26 to 87 to 97 connects the left terminal of LED 1, to the top left of the quad op amp, to the left side of a 10k resistor, to the left side of a 100k resistor with two medium sized red wires and a small white wire.

The connection from 3 to 29 to 14 to 45 connects the right terminal of LED 1, to the GND of the quad op amp, to the right terminal of the Cds cell, to the negative terminal of a battery with one medium sized red wire and two small white wires.

The connection between 13 and 105 connects the left terminal of the Cds cell, to the left terminal of the control with a medium sized red wire.

The connection between 17 and 106 connects the base of the Q1 PNP transistor, to the middle terminal of the control with a long yellow wire.

The connection between 18 and 36 connects the collector of the Q1 PNP transistor, to the VCC terminal of the quad op amp with a medium sized blue wire.

The connection from 19 to 40 t0 107 connects the emitter of the Q1 PNP transistor, to the positive terminal of a battery, to the right terminal of the control with one medium sized blue wire, and a medium sized red wire.

The connection from 69 to 27 t0 88 connects the positive terminal of a 10 micro farad capacitor, to the quad op amp, to the right terminal of a 10k resistor with two medium sized red wires.

The connection from 28 to 90 t0 98 connects the quad op amp, to the right terminal of a 10k resistor, to the right terminal of a 100k resistor with one medium sized red wire, and one small white wire.

And finally the connection from 70 to 89 to 42 to 43 connects the the right terminal of a 10 micro farad capacitor, to the left terminal of a 10k resistor, to the negative terminal of a battery, to a positive terminal of a battery with one medium sized red wire and two small white wires.

Once all the connections have been made LED 1 illuminates if the control is set to zero. By turning the control clockwise toward ten, the LED will turn off. The LED flashes in rapid succession simulating the light of a candle.

To see the LED electronic candle please click here

The electronic candle uses a Cds cell which reacts to the amount of light it receives. By covering the Cds cell the light dims, or goes out completely depending on the coverage. As the amount of light gathered by the Cds cell changes, the OP Amp’s power voltage changes in order to control the oscillation. The two changes are related, and as light increases, the output voltage of the transistor increases (or is amplified), as the light decreases the output voltage of the transistor decreases. This creates the flickering of the LED, and the changes in brightness due to the coverage of the Cds cell.

You can see what happens when covering the Cds cell here

The OP amp is a long period oscillator which means the output it creates lights LED 1. The Q1 transistor amplifies the input from the Cadmium Sulfide cell to the OP Amp. The output of this activates the OP Amp.

Final Thoughts

This project varied from the entertainment circuits as it dealt with light rather than sound. The flickering candle also involves the use of the Cds Cell, and the OP Amp in order to function. Completing the project made me more interested in how the OP Amp and Cds function, and how they can be applied to other electronic projects.

Sources: Maxitronix Electronic Lab Owners Manual

 

Advertisements

Making Process Portfolio: Day 5

Entertainment Circuits: Electronic Cat Noises

This project involves the use of many components not introduced in the previous projects.

These consist of a speaker, a transformer, transitors, a control, and capacitors.

Below I’ve provided the role of each component, and how they function.

Components

Control- A variable resistor which can change how much electricity flow is restricted by by adjusting the knob.

Capacitor- Stores electrical energy, blocks direct current, and permits the flows of alternating current.

  • Direct current- A current which flows only in one direction
  • Alternating current-A current which flows in one direction till reaching its maximum where it decreases to zero, switches the direction of flow and increases till its maximum and then decreases back to zero. The current alternates between directions continuously. 

Transistor- A tiny chip with three connection points B which is the base, C which is the collector, and E which is the emitter. Transistors amplify weak electrical signals, are used as switches to connect or disconnect other components, and can oscillate to allow electrical signals to flow in pulses.

Speaker- Converts electrical energy to sound.

Transformer- Helps match circuits so they function efficiently by transferring electrical energy which is flowing in one part of a circuit to another part.

Project 18: Electronic Cat

Now that I have information on the other components used in this project, I can move on to connecting the circuit.

15-48, 16-49, 17-59-91, 18-63-52, 19-71-75, 40-109, 45-106-72-51, 50-64-60, 76-108, 92-107, 42-43

FullSizeRender.jpg
Project 18: Electronic Cat Noise

The connection between 15 and 48 connects the top terminal of the speaker, to the top left side of the transformer with a medium sized red wire.

The connection between 16 and 49 connects the bottom terminal of the speaker, to the top right side of transformer with a short white wire.

The connection from 17 to 59 to 91 connects the base section of the Q1 PNP transistor, to a 0.01 micro farad capacitor, to a 22k resistor with a medium sized red wire, and a medium sized blue wire.

The connection from 18 to 63 to 52 connects the collector section of the Q1 PNP transistor, to a 0.1 micro farad capacitor, to the bottom right terminal of the transformer with a medium sized red wire, and a small white wire.

The connection from 19 to 71 to 75 connects the emitter section of the Q1 PNP transistor, to the 100 micro farad positive terminal of a capacitor, to the 100 ohm resistor with a medium sized red wire, and a small white wire.

The connection between 40 and 109 connects the positive terminal of a battery, to the right side of the key with a medium sized red wire.

The connection from 45 to 106 to 72 to 51 connects the negative terminal of a battery, to the middle terminal of the control, to the right terminal of a 100 micro farad capacitor, to the bottom middle terminal of the transformer with a small white wire, medium sized blue wire, and a medium sized red wire.

The connection from 50 to 64 to 60 connects the bottom left terminal of the transformer, to the right terminal of the 0.1 micro farad capacitor, to the right terminal of the 0.01 micro farad capacitor with two small white wires.

The connection between 76 and 108 connects the right terminal of the 100 ohm resistor, to left terminal of the key with a medium sized red wire.

The connection between 92 and 107 connects the right terminal of the 22k resistor, to right terminal of the control with a medium sized red wire.

And finally the connection between 42 and 43 connects the negative terminal of a battery, to a positive terminal of a battery with a small white wire.

Once all the connections have been made upon pressing the key, the speaker creates an electronic sounding cat noise. By turning the control clockwise the pitch of the cat noise becomes gradually higher. When holding the key down, the length of the cat noise extends.

To hear the electronic cat noises please click here

The electronic cat uses a low frequency oscillator which is composed of the Q1 transistor, and the transformer. The cat noise itself is generated by the 0.01 micro farad capacitor, the 22k ohm resistor, and the control.

Final Thoughts

This Project was definitely harder to understand than the previous ones, but I wanted to challenge myself with a project with and interesting result. I was surprised to hear the cat noise that came from the speaker, and thought it was interesting that the pitch changed when turning the knob. Next project I hope to do something involving the LED lights in the kit.

Sources: Maxitronix Electronic Lab Owners Manual

Making Process Portfolio: Day 4

FullSizeRender 2.jpg

Today I worked on my first electronics project using the Maxitronix 75 in one electronics kit.

IMG_2536.JPG
Batteries are located on the back of the Kit
img_2538
The Owners Manual
IMG_2537.JPG
Wires of different lengths and colors

The kit comes with wires and an owners manual, and requires four double A batteries as pictured above.

In order to get a feel for the kit, I went through the first and second projects listed in the owner’s manual.

Basic Semi Conductor and Component Circuits

Project 1 focuses on the function of resistors in an electrical circuit. Resistors resist the flow of electricity in a circuit. Project 1a describes the function of a basic series of resistors, which is when two resistors are connected to each other and electricity flows from one resistor to the next in sequence.

Project 1a: Resistors in a series

The schematic in the manual directs the user to connect the electronic components in this order in order to demonstrate the function of a series of resistors.

3-5-109,6-108-42,1-40

fullsizerender
Project 1a: Resistors in Series

The connection between 3 and 5 connects LED 1, to LED 2 with a short white wire.

The connection between 5 and 109 connects LED 2, to the key on the bottom right corner of the electronic lab with a long yellow wire.

The connection between 6 and 108 connects LED 2, to the left side of the key with a long yellow wire.

The connection between 108 and 42 connects the left side of the key, to the negative terminal of the battery located on the top right of the electronic lab with a medium sized red wire.

And finally the connection between 1 and 40 connects the left side of LED 1, to the positive terminal of the battery with a mid sized blue wire.

Once all the connections have been made, LED 1 illuminates, and upon pressing the key, LED 1 glows brighter.

This occurs because when the key is pressed it completes the circuit allowing electricity to flow through the key avoiding the lower resistor and flowing through only the higher resistor making LED 1 shine brighter. When the key is untouched the light is dimmed because the electricity faces resistance from the lower resistor and the higher resistor.

The brightening and dimming of LED 1 displays the role of a resistor in resisting the flow of electricity.

Project 1b: Resistors in Parallel

Parallel resistors are when two resistors are connected side by side allowing electricity to flow through both resistors at the same time.

The schematic in the manual directs the user to connect the electronic components in this order in order to demonstrate the function of parallel resistors.

2-5, 6-109, 3-108-42, 1-40

FullSizeRender.jpg
Project 1b: Resistors in Parallel

The connection between 2 and 5 connects LED 1, to LED 2 with a short white wire.

The connection between 6 and 109 connects the right side of LED 2, to the right side of the key with a long yellow wire.

The connection between 3 and 108 connects LED 1, to the left side of the key with a long yellow wire.

The connection between 108 and 42 connects the left side of the key, to the negative terminal of the battery with a medium length red wire.

And finally the connection between 1 and 40 connects the left side of LED 1, to the positive terminal of the battery with a medium length blue wire.

Once all of the connections have been made LED 1 illuminates. And upon pressing the key LED 1 glows brighter.

This occurs because when the key is pressed a second resistor is added to the circuit and due to the parallel connection, electricity flows through both resistors at the same time therefore resistance is decreased.

In this parallel connection, the total resistance is less than the lowest value resistor connected in parallel.

The brightening and dimming of LED 1 displays the role of parallel resistors in resisting the flow of electricity.

Final Thoughts

The first two projects of the kit were a great way to introduce me to the schematics of a circuit and the function of resistors in series and in parallel.

Now with this knowledge and skill set behind me I feel more comfortable moving on to more complicated projects with different outcomes.

Sources: Maxitronix Electronic Lab Owners Manual

Day 3: Making Process Portfolio

Today I decided to reevaluate my goal, and put some things into context. This project is an outlet for me to have fun, learn something new, and teach others how to do the same. My overall project of constructing my own synthesizer is pretty ambitious, and may take more time than this project permits.

Therefore, I am changing my initial goal and choosing to learn more about electronics, and the science of sound in general.

And when time permits, i’ll talk about how what i’ve learned applies to the creation of an analog synthesizer.

So where better to begin then understanding the concept of Ohm’s Law:

What I’ve Gathered so Far:

Ohm’s law calculates the way in which electricity flows through a circuit.

Electricity is a form of energy resulting from the existence of charged particles (such as electrons or protons), either statically as an accumulation of charge or dynamically as a current.

Ohm’s Law is concerned with three main aspects of the flow of electricity:

Resistance– (R) Resistance describes how hard it is for electricity to flow continuously through the diameter of the wire.It is measured in Ohms. Resistance can be a changing variable in a circuit, and more resistance can create heat within a circuit.

Voltage– (V) Voltage describes the pressure of the flow of electricity, and is measure in volts.

Current– (I) Current describes the flow of electrons through the circuit, and is measured in amps.

All of these qualities can be quantified and observed in a circuit system.

An Ohm’s Law Triangle can help conceptualize what equation to use in order to find the quantity of the chosen variable.

Screen Shot 2016-10-17 at 11.49.48 PM.png

To find V, V= I * R

To find I, I= V / R

To find R, R=V / I

 

Sources:

Ohm’s Law Explained. Perf. Rc Model Reviews. Youtube. Rc Model Reviews, 28 Feb. 2016. Web. 25 Nov. 2016.

Next Post…

I will be going over basic schematics, and how to solve for V, I, and R using Ohm’s law.

 

Day 2: Making Process Portfolio

After finally receiving my copy of Make: Analog Synthesizers through the mail, I was able to crack into the book.

The introduction told me a few important things:

  1. Making a synthesizer involves trial, error, and troubleshooting.
  2. A basic understanding of electronics is required.
  3. This hobby is time consuming, and possibly addictive.

Despite the warnings, I kept on reading till the next chapter in which the author describes the things which you should know how to do before learning how to create your own synthesizer.

What You Should Know:

  • How to read a schematic
  • Ohm’s Law
  • How passive components work: resistors, capacitors, coils, transformers, switches, and relays
  • How active components work: diodes, transistors, integrated circuits, and LED’s
  • How to solder and construct electronic projects

My goals for this next week are to do as much research on the items listed above as I can find time for. I also (ideally) would like to purchase a “75 in one electronic experimenter kit” in order to get accustomed to the basic principles of operation for circuits.

The book mentions a “Noise toaster lo-fi noise box” project that is suitable for those with little knowledge of electronics.

This is the project I will set my eyes on, and hopefully through this process be able to recreate.

Till next time ; )